Operation Nemesis was an assassination campaign organized by the members of the radical Armenian Revolutionary Federation that condemned and brought to justice the perpetrators of the Armenian Genocide.
When the influencers and world powers turned their backs, ignored and broke their promises, a group of Armenians, Armenian Revolutionary Federation, formed the “Operation Nemesis“.
It was a revenge operation mixed with propaganda of the deeds that served to justice over the perpetrators of the genocidal murder of the Armenians.
Why Operation Nemesis was Organized?
Operation Nemesis was the coded name of a covert operation organized by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. The main goal of the operation was to assassinate the Turkish political and military figures that remained unpunished after their great role for planning and executing the Armenian Genocide.
The Azerbaijani officials who were responsible for the 1918 massacre of Armenians in Baku were also in the target. Armen Garo, Aaron Sachaklian and Shahan Natalie are considered to be the masterminds of this secret operation.
Overall, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation was quite active and radical for fighting against the Ottoman oppression in the late 19th century. But it was only after the following event that the members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation made a decision to form an organization of Armenian assassins.
The thing was that after the World War I the Ottoman military tribunal condemned and sentenced to death some of the Young Turk leaders who had a significant role in the Armenian Genocide. However, they failed not only in competency, but also in holding fair trials.
It was very hard for the Armenians to watch the Turkish perpetrators who realized the Armenian massacres slip away from the punishments and travel freely around the world. So, the members of the Operation Nemesis decided that they, the Armenian assassins, should carry out their verdicts.
Operation Nemesis: Congress in Yerevan
In the early 1920s, after Armenia officially declared its independence and Yerevan became the capital city of Armenia, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation held their 9th World Congress in here.
The main issue of the congress was the justice against those who were responsible for the Armenian Genocide. So, the members of The Armenian Revolutionary Federation decided to realize a secret assassination campaign, known as Operation Nemesis.
By the way, the members of the group and the Armenian assassins had their spies and diplomatic supporters that helped to track down the Ottoman officials.
Their targets could easily continue the notorious list of the evilest historical villains, such as Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, Osama Bin Laden, Saddam Hussein, Mussolini, Mao Zedong and many others.
The Condemned Perpetrators of Operation Nemesis
Operation Nemesis Assassination #1: Talaat Pasha
The main target for the Operation Nemesis and for the Armenian Assassins that wanted to take revenge for the Armenian Genocide was Talat Pasha.
Even the leader of the Operation Nemesis and the member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation Shahan Natalie called him “Number one target”.
Talat Pasha was one of the leading figures of the Young Turks and is widely known as one of the initiators and main perpetrators of the Armenian genocide. He had a plan to “exterminate” all the Armenians as soon as he comes to the power.
Actually, the deeper you go into the biography of this man, the stronger you start to hate him.
To Tehlirian, Talat was not just the Ottoman minister that ruled during the First World War.
He was a key member in authorizing the massacres in 1915, a person who initiated the murder of much of Tehlirian’s family and one and a half million other Armenians.
Operation NemesisAssassination #2: Djemal Pasha
Djemal Pasha was an Ottoman military leader and along with Talat Pasha was one of the Three Pashas (also known as “Three Dictators”). Because he was notoriously cruel in his ideas and actions he was also known as “Djemal the Butcher”.
His accomplices in this Operation Nemesis were the other members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation Artashes Gevorgyan and Petros Ter Poghosyan.
Operation NemesisAssassination #3: Enver Pasha
Enver Pasha was an Ottoman military officer and the leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution. Talaat, Djemal and Enver Pashas formed a group that is known as Three Pashas that ran the Ottoman Empire until the end of World War I.
These three are widely considered as the main perpetrators and authors of the mass murder of Armenians by historians.
Operation NemesisAssassination #4: Fatali Khan Khoyski
Fatali Khan Khoyski was the first Prime Minister of Azerbaijan. He was chiefly responsible and had a major role in 1918 Baku massacres. This was a program of ethnic violence against the Armenians who lived in Baku.
During this pogrom a great number of Armenians were beaten, tortured and murdered.
Among the other condemned were Behbud Khan Javanshir (Minister of Interior of Azerbaijan responsible for the massacres of Armenians in Baku), Behaeddin Shakir (member of the Committee of Union and Progress), Said Halim Pasha (Grand Vizier), Cemal Azmi Bey (the governor-general of Trebizond, also known as the monster of Trebizond).
Aftereffects and Trials of the Avengers of Operation Nemesis
Operation Nemesis was an assassination and retribution plot that, to some extent, avenged the Armenian Genocide. It is noteworthy that some of the Armenian Assassins were never brought to trial.
But the most sensational and memorable trial was Soghoman Tehliryan, an agent of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation and the Armenian assassin of Talat Pasha.
In court, Soghomon Tehliryan admitted that he committed the shooting, but he also testified that he only served to justice. Tehleryan added that he had witnessed his mother beheaded, had seen his brother severely murdered and his sister raped.
When the world and the jury hared more about the horrors and the dreadful events of the period, Tehleryan started to be seen not so much as an assassin but as an agent for equity and justice.
The German court found Tehleryan innocent based on the fact that he had a traumatic experience which resulted in his temporary insanity. Thus, he was not responsible for his behavior.
By the way, the main goal of the Armenian assassins and Operation Nemesis was to draw attention to the genocide of one and a half million Armenians. And it is not surprising that Tehleryan was ordered to stay in the “crime scene” after the shooting and have a public trial.
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